Interest and Usury (Bunga dan Riba)

Interest and Usury are ones of the most debatable topics amongst the Muslims, especially amongst Muslims who live in a country that does not adopt sharia law like here in Indonesia. Interest is the additional money over the principal borrowing paid by the borrower to the lender. Usury is the practice itself of adopting interest in borrowing.  We live in a modern world which is almost impossible to avoid conventional banking system adopted from the West who introduced interest in the system. Interest is applied as the ‘cost of borrowing’ because the lender’s money is not  at his disposal when it is not in the lender’s bank account on hand while the value of money itself (i.e. the purchasing power of money) depreciates over a period of time. It is the inflation who eats away at the value of money.

However usury (riba) is condemned in Islam, because usury does not encourage mutual corporation and does not foster brotherly love amongst Muslims. For a clearer picture, the following is the ingredients of usurious transactions:

– Two homogeneous things of exchange and it has the same character but differing in size, quality or measurement, for instance if silver is exchanged for silver of the same weight and quality in hand-to-hand transaction, it is not interest. But if it is unequal, then the excess is surely an interest !!

– If there is a stipulation or demand for the excess over the principal sum to be paid in the future, the excess is also called interest.

In Quran, the practice of  usury (which involves interest) is condemned several times in many verses:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَأْكُلُواْ الرِّبَا أَضْعَافاً مُّضَاعَفَةً وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ا

O you who have believed, do not consume usury, doubled and multiplied, but fear Allah that you may be successful.  (QS 3:130)

الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لاَ يَقُومُونَ إِلاَّ كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللّهُ

الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا فَمَن جَاءهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىَ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who consume interest cannot stand [on the Day of Resurrection] except as one stands who is being beaten by Satan into insanity. That is because they say, “Trade is [just] like interest.” But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest. So whoever has received an admonition from his Lord and desists may have what is past, and his affair rests with Allah. But whoever returns to [dealing in interest or usury] – those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide eternally therein.  (QS 2:275)

Trading requires the use of labour and skill and promotes the morals; usury elevates the habits of indolence, cunning and oppression. To help the down-trodden poor men in straitened circumstances is the object of the social structure of Islam and to reduce him to further straits is the end of usury. Hence usury is termed war against Allah.

The prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) has declared all sorts of usurious transactions unlawful because the charging of interest undermines the spirit of fellow-feeling and sacrifice and inculcates selfishness and miserliness in a man.

Besides those described above, the following is the additional reasons of the illegality of interest and usury:

  1. Usury is unlawful because it amounts to exploration and reduces the debtor to poverty which is a colossal inequity. The prophet (peace be upon him) has said that a man’s wealth is as unlawful to another as his blood. For this reason the extortion of wealth without lawful consideration has been illegalised.
  2. The second reason for the illegalisation of interest is that debts cut the root of one’s honour in declared unlawful people would naturally abstain from borrowing and squandering money. In case it is made lawful, people will not hestiate in borrowing at any rate. This will bring **sigh** mutual sympathy and human goodliness to and end !!
  3. The third reason for the unlawfulness of usury is the fact that money acquired by way of interest prevents the creditor from indulging in any occupation because the creditor shall find it so easy to acquire his living from interest on cash on loans. He will not engage himself in some business which entails labour. This would give a horrifying setback and hinder the progress of an economy and civilisation because no society can march on without trade, industry and moreover technology!
  4. The fourth reason for illegalisation of interest is that, in all probability, the creditor might become richer and the debtor may become poorer. It will divide the society into two or even more classes which is disfavoured by Islam thus undeniably it goes against the spirit of Islam.

Now from the text above we all know that basically Interest is very unlawful in Islam. In sharia law we are encouraged to practice profit-sharing base in trading and abandoning the practice of usury. But of course, in a country like ours turning down western trading system is much easier said than done! I myself have never been sure whether I sin or not by following western trading system. But I believe even though I am in a wrong direction I am not the one who has to sin due to following the system. It is the ones who are authorised to adopt the system who sin most. And if I do sin, I am sure there are millions of others who are as strayed as I am! :mrgreen:

Iklan

20 responses to “Interest and Usury (Bunga dan Riba)

  1. hehehe jadi ngingetin masa lalu saya yg sempat nyemplung di dunia perbankan konvensional… 🙂

  2. kalau menurut saya sistem sharia bagi hasil ujung2nya juga sama aja yaitu uang yg dipinjam dikembalikannya jg lebih banyak hampir sama spt riba juga. mungkin maksudnya adalah jika meminjam dlm niaga boleh dng bagi hasil tp kalau duit yg dipinjam utk keperluan pribadi itu mungkin yg tdk boleh dikenakan tambahan. ah auk ah gelap. hehe..

  3. That’s why some Kiai prefer to keep their money under their bed, and some others who keep their money in bank — never take advantage from their bank interest. They just take the money as they save minus administration fee.

  4. Kalau investasi itu gimana, Pak.
    Apakah juga termasuk riba?

  5. Wuihhhh…..English article terus nih
    tapi saluut deh, bs sekalian jd tempat belajar
    agree……for interest and usury
    I’m says : no………, mudharabah yes

  6. Wahh inggris & arab 😀
    😀
    Makin asoi aja nih mas nulis Blog dengan bahasa inggris

  7. saya jadi ingat ketika “bank titil” ini istilah utk bank liar yang suka membungakan uang dg berlipat2, bung yari. tetap repotnya, banyak mereka yang menerjuni usaha ini orang yang tahu ajaran agama. ada beberapa di antara mereka yang sudah naik haji. mereka suka berdalih, cari duwit riba alias haram aja sulit kok, apalagi yang halal. bener2 repot.

  8. Kabar kabarnya perbankan keuangan di Indonesia sedang marak2 nya islamic banking, kabar baik untuk Indonesia ?

  9. banyak sekali ajakan untuk ke bank syariah..
    bisa2 terjadi perbedaan antara bank buat muslim dan non muslim..

  10. @inos

    Sekarang udah nggak lagi kan mas? 😀

    @AgusBin

    Saya gelap juga bin….. nggak tahu deh dosa apa nggak…. yang tahu hanyalah Allah, yang penting kita berniat baik saja jikalau kita ingin melakukan sesuatu termasuk jika kita bertransaksi dengan bank…. 😀

    @Yoga

    Amongst the jurists and Muslim scholars still there is dissent on usury. Some jurists strictly forbid usury while others are more lenient in terms of the unlawfulness of usury. On which side are you?? It is you who knows best…… 😀

    @Edi Psw

    Lah… investasi kan banyak macamnya pak?? Investasi yang seperti apa dulu nih? 😀

    @mikekono

    Abis ini pakai bahasa Indonesia lagi kok….. lumayan banyak yang protes lewat e-mail… huehehe…..
    Mudah2an kita dapat memilih dengan bijaksana macam perbankan seperti apa yang kita butuhkan….. 😀

    @Gelandangan

    Artikel berikut pakai bahasa Indonesia lagi…. :mrgreen:

    @sawali tuhusetya

    Yah… begitulah pak Sawali….. hidup memang sulit apalagi di negeri ini. Orang2 yang nggak kuat iman (walaupun udah haji) akan cepat terjun ke dalam bisnis2 haram. Itulah akibatnya kalau orang hanya dinilai berhasil berdasarkan pengumpulan harta saja bukan berdasarkan prestasi. Seharusnya selain harta, keberhasilan hidup seseorang harus juga diukur dengan prestasi, seperti yang terjadi di negara2 maju.

    @Raffaell

    Mungkin sebagian ada yang menganggapnya kabar baik. Sebagian lagi pasti ada yang menganggap kabar buruk, dan sebagian lagi ada juga yang cuek. Tergantung orangnya juga….. 😀

    @L 34 H

    Sebenarnya bank Syariah juga menerima nasabah2 non-Muslim juga loh…. yang saya dengar dari Channel News Asia, bank syariah di Singapura banyak juga nasabah2nya yang non-Muslim…. 🙂

  11. Memang ada perbedaan antara sharia banking dan conventional banking. Tinggal kita mau menggunakan yang mana, jika nantinya Bank Syariah bisa memberikan jasa yang makin kompleks, bukan tak mungkin banyak perpindahan nasabah dari bank konvensional ke bank Syariah. Tentu saja Bank Syariah masih banyak harus bebenah diri….

    ___________________________

    Yari NK replies:

    Memang bank Syariah masih banyak yang harus dibenahi. Administrasinya aja masih banyak yang nggak beres. Yah, mudah2an saja dengan kehadiran bank Syariah ini masyarakat justru mempunyai lebih banyak pilihan! 🙂

  12. Sebagai tambahan: Nasabah bank syariah tidak harus muslim

    _________________________

    Yari NK replies:

    Betul sekali…. seperti jawaban saya buat mbak L34H di atas. Di Singapura, menurut Channel News Asia, bank Syariah juga banyak sekali nasabah non-Muslimnya.

  13. Konon, ‘bagi keuntungan’ yang diperoleh melalui bank syariah lebih besar dari pada bunga bank konvensional. Ini tentu tantangan yang harus diantisipasi bank-bank konvensional.
    Tentang halal-haramnya bunga bank juga masih menjadi kontroversi banyak ahli agama. Sekarang ini bunga tabungan berkisar 5 – 6 persen. Apakah termasuk riba juga, mengingat definisi riba adalah ‘penambahan punjaman yang berlipat-lipat’?
    Wallahu a’lam …

    ____________________________________

    Yari NK replies:

    Kalau keuntungannya besar ya tentu bisa melebihi bunga yang ditawarkan bank2 konvensional, kalau keuntungannya kecil ya mungkin agak memblé juga kali :mrgreen:
    Tapi mudah2an dengan hadirnya bank syariah masyarakat bisa mendapatkan pilihan yang lebih luas dan dapat menjalankan ‘portfolio’ investasinya sesuai dengan yang diinginkannya. 🙂

  14. ah ini yang saya cari … “penerapan syariah* ada fokus thesis saya kang 🙂

  15. heheheheh g’ ngarti dirikuhh.. nyari kamus duluhhh :mrgreen:

  16. tempat kerja saya termasuk yang menjalankan permodalan dari perbankan syari’ah. kita sekarang bisa tumbuh hampir 10 kali lipat dari tahun 2004. dan bank yang bersangkutan atas keberaniannya memulai dengan sistem syari’ah maka sekarang menikmati pengembalian di atas angka yang di raih sistem konvensional.

    eh boleh belok sedikit bos, kita butuh dukungan bloger nih…

    betul ustadz, serba tidak terasa, tiba2 sudah begini, tiba2 sudah begitu. mudah2an saja nanti kita bisa bilang, tidak terasa tiba2 sekarang kita sudah di surga, amiin.
    ustadz, blog trendibandung saya putuskan untuk diteruskan di-update untuk meneruskan semangat dan kerja yang sudah kita kerjakankemarin ini. tentu dengan semangat yang sama, menciptakan trend kebaikan di kota Bandung. dengan motto membuat baik masyarakat banyak dan membuat banyak masyarakat baik.
    tulisan terakhir saya…

    http://trendibandung.wordpress.com/2008/09/15/bloger-jangan-kalah-dua-kali/

  17. yang lebih parah kalo udah kejerat rentenir…
    udah riba…. gede lagi!! Ampun deh!!!!!!!!!

  18. mungkin fokusnya adalah penyerahan uang untuk disimpan. perkara mau nambah atau tetap tidak masalah. wong bank itu kan perlu membiayai pegawai, fasilitas ATM, sekuriti, dll. kalo bikin Bank Kejawen aja gimana? mungin dinamai Mas aja :mrgreen:

  19. This was linked with banking? If like that, according to me only matters of the mechanism that was different between the form of the profit-sharing (syariah) and the form of the “bunga” (conventional banking). If was counted from the side financial precisely “syariah” to like the parasite that continued to cling :mrgreen: . According to me the monetary field, the economy, capital of small businesses, or welfare of the connected people was tight to the policy and the rule of the legal regulation as government responsibility. However if being connected with faith could be tightened again in the context.

  20. @Rindu

    Oh ya?? Wah… cukup menarik ya! Tapi tentu ada topik fokusnya juga ya! 😀

    @zoel

    Hueheheheh….. :mrgreen:

    @tren di bandung

    Wah…. syukurlah jikalau industri finansial syariah bisa berkembang hampir 10 kali lipat dari empat tahun yang lalu. Ini merupakan bukti bahwa perbankan syariahpun jikalau dikelola dengan baik dapat dengan tegar menghadapi tantangan zaman….

    Waduh… jadi malu nih dipanggil ustadz…. saya bukan ustadz loh…. mengajar aja saya tidak… huehehehe…… Ok deh…nanti saya kunjungi website tren di bandung ini….. 🙂

    @qizinklaziva

    Huehehehe…. mudah2an bukan pengalaman pribadi masa lalu ya?? :mrgreen:

    @siti jenang

    Mau bikin bank kejawen?? mas siti jenang mau mempeloporinya?? Tapi bunga untuk nasabahnya jangan bunga kembang tujuh rupa ya?? :mrgreen:

    @laporan

    For those who do not like sharia based banking should view it from more neutral side. Financially there is nothing wrong with profit-sharing banking. We should not belittle them just because they don’t originate in the west. Sharia banking can benefit both Muslims and non-Muslims. It can give more options to the society. I think in this country, conventional and sharia banking can go hand in hand to give the best of low-risk investments……. 🙂

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s